Searching for a former drinker for a sober buzz
When the beer finally started to taste great, they bottled samples to take out to regional distributors. Their big break came when Shufelt met the Whole Foods regional buyer in New Jersey. “He was our first believer,” said Shufelt.
The business has grown rapidly, in part because some of Shufelt’s former colleagues in finance are investors in Athletic. Shufelt and Walker opened a large brewery in San Diego in June 2020 and plan to open an even larger one in Connecticut in 2022. They want Athletic to be NA’s Sam Adams craft beer: a national brand that defines the category.
While chatting with Shufelt and Walker, I realized I was feeling a bit buzzing. My face was hot and my pulse was high. It wasn’t beer – my glass of Two Trellises had barely more alcohol than an overripe banana, and my body was metabolizing ethanol within minutes of ingesting it. The buzz I was feeling was kind of a placebo effect, produced by the aroma and taste but also by the dimly lit taproom, the stools, the bar, and us in a tight circle, talking and drinking.
In the early 1970s, G. Alan Marlatt, then a clinical psychologist at the University of Wisconsin, published the first account of his now famous “balanced placebo design” experiments, which demonstrated the influence that expectations and setting can. have on the psychotropic effects of alcohol. effects. He and his students recruited unhealed alcoholics and social drinkers from the Madison area and divided these people, who were told to take taste tests, into four groups. Those in group one were given a mixed drink (the researchers used low-carbon tonic and vodka, in a five-to-one ratio) and were told the drink contained alcohol. Those in group two were also told they were taking alcohol, but they were given a placebo-only tonic. Those in the third group learned that they were getting tonic, and they did. Participants in the fourth group drank alcohol, but were told it was tonic.
The results were surprising. A man in the group who expected alcohol but was given the tonic started behaving intoxicated and tried to make an appointment with one of the lab assistants, and several men from the group. group who expected tonic but received alcohol experienced tremors – a symptom of withdrawal – even though I had swallowed several vodkas.
Shortly after the experience, Marlatt moved to the University of Washington, where he established the Behavioral Alcohol Research Laboratory – the BARlab—Within the psychiatry service, to continue the study. The lab, which was recently described to me by former Marlatt graduate student Kim Fromme, now professor emeritus of psychology at the University of Texas at Austin, had a bar with bottles and glassware behind, stools, music and ambiance. lighting. It was also equipped with microphones and hidden cameras, and a one-way mirror that allowed researchers to observe drinkers in secret.
Fromme students continue to use balanced placebos design methods to study the role alcohol plays – and does not play – in sexual arousal, domestic violence, and uninhibited behavior. (However, most researchers no longer study a group that expects tonic but receives alcohol, as few participants are fooled.) Be uninhibited? said Fromme. “Does alcohol make people flirtier, or do they think that drinking gives them permission to be flirtatious?” It all depends on what you expect.
Fromme added that his bar lab had improved compared to Marlatt’s placebo. Researchers are now serving the subjects drinks made with cranberry juice, Diet Cherry 7UP, Rose’s Lime Juice, and low-carbon tonic, some fortified with vodka, others not. She also rubs alcohol on the glasses to add the scent. “You can’t tell the difference,” she said.
I asked her if she had ever used real ale and a non-alcoholic beer placebo in the lab. She hadn’t, she said, because beer has a much lower alcohol content than vodka: “Vodka gets people to 0.08 faster.
My pint with the founders of Athletic indeed pushed me, but only to try other non-alcoholic craft beers. Many are made by West Coast brewers who do not have Athletic distribution. But non-alcoholic beer is easier to ship across states than its alcoholic counterpart, and is taxed at the rate applied to non-alcoholic beverages, somewhat offsetting the additional cost of dealcoholization and pasteurization. You also don’t have to be twenty-one to buy NA beer in most states.
Within days, our doorbell rang with beer deliveries: cases of Surreal’s Chandelier Red IPA (burnt toast and caramel), WellBeing’s Intentional IPA (peach and pineapple) and BrewDog’s Hazy AF (clover, thistle, mowed lawn). All of these beers are delicious, and some are tasty to the point of being funky, with rippling foam heads and the sparkle of added carbonation. But Run Wild has remained my reference.
One day, while away from home, I asked my wife, Lisa, to look for a case of BrewDog’s Nanny State and one of Bravus’ Blood Orange IPAs.
“Is this getting a little weird?” ” she said. Lisa doesn’t have a drinking problem, but twenty-five years with someone who made her a reluctant expert.
Was it? Every inch of available space in the kitchen was filling up with cases of beer. I felt like I was acting out the fantasy I had had towards the end of my drinking career: filling the house with so much alcohol that I would never have to leave. (At the time, I was hiding the booze in the cellar.) There was an obsessive-compulsive aspect to my sampling of NA beers that went way beyond the call of curiosity, and it reminded Lisa the bad old days.
I asked George Koob, the director of the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, which is part of the National Institutes of Health, and Nora Volkow, the director of the National Institute on Drug Abuse, about my raging non-alcoholism. . “When you quit an acquired habit, it doesn’t go away,” Koob said. “All you’re doing is replacing that habit with a different habit.” Volkow compared my behavior to a frenzy. “It’s automatic compulsive behavior,” she says. (Volkow is Leon Trotsky’s great-granddaughter and grew up in Mexico City, in the house where her great-grandfather was murdered, in 1940.) How to avoid it? Very simple. I avoid putting chocolate chip cookies in front of me. But it does require executive control of my frontal cortex. Drinking erodes your executive system and causes loss of control in some people.
But what if my executive system couldn’t resist non-alcoholic beer? Abstinence had made me love the refreshing, low-calorie, anytime of the day drink that people in medieval times called “little beer”. (At the time, it was brewed with leftover regular beer, and adults and children would sometimes have drunk it instead of water, which was more likely to be contaminated.) I could easily put one away. six pack of NA beers over the course of a day and never feel bloated or tired, and because it replaced sugary drinks and sodas in my diet, I lost weight. I drank it at lunch and dinner, while working and driving, and after exercise, because if it was good enough for the 2018 German Olympic skiers, who drank NA beer as a workout drink, it was good enough for me. (Budweiser Zero, which is Anheuser-Busch’s somewhat improved new NA beer, has hired retired NBA star Dwyane Wade as a spokesperson in hopes of promoting beer as a drink. for athletes in the United States)
Ted Fleming founded Partake Brewing, a Calgary-based NA brewery, after a diagnosis of Crohn’s disease forced him to give up alcohol. He told me, “Beer contains salts, minerals, polyphenols and anti-inflammatories,” adding that it hardly contains the sugar in Gatorade. To highlight that NA beer is healthier than most sugary juices parents give their children, Ted posted a photo of his preteen daughter drinking Partake beer on social media. (He removed it after causing outrage.)
Best of all, at a 4th of July party at our house, I got to drink my Run Wilds while the guests drank their craft beers. The laughs seemed stronger, the smiles seemed brighter, and my companions were no more savvy that I was drinking a placebo, a necessary condition for the psychological effects to work. Still, I remembered the way I used to cover up alcohol. Now I was hiding the non-alcohol.
In truth, I have never been a big beer drinker. A 6 PM Martini or seasonal whiskey, then wine at dinner: it was my nighttime habit for decades, echoing my parents. But their ritual never changed, as mine went imperceptibly from a single cocktail to two, then three, and sometimes four, and that glass of red with dinner became a bottle and a half. Along the way, my drinking went from social to sneaky, from Falstaff to Iago.
Could I restore the old customs of my parties, using placebos of wine and non-alcoholic alcohol instead of alcohol? When I presented my concept of “zero-proof therapy” to George Koob, he declared it “very dangerous”. To Lisa, this sounded like an argument made by former and future alcoholic Wile E. Prevaricator, a clever way to introduce and rationalize the idea of my returning to real drinking.
Alcohol-free red wines make awful placebos. No wine drinker, accustomed to drinking wines ranging from eleven to fifteen percent blood alcohol content, would mistake the alcohol-free Cabernets made by Fre and Ariel, two widely distributed American brands, with the nectar of the gods. Most NA wines are fully fermented and then dealcoholized like beer, using rotating cones and reverse osmosis to separate the alcohol from the juice. But a vineyard can’t add a lot of other flavors to make up for the lack of alcohol. You end up with a twenty dollar grape juice that tastes like a kid’s drink. And one of the reasons young people drink alcohol in the first place, even if the first sips are smelly, is to demonstrate that they are no longer children. The proof is in the proof.